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  • Mesenchymal Niche-Derived Neuregulin-1 Drives Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Regeneration of Damaged Epithelium
    Cell Stem Cell (IF 20.86) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Thierry Jardé; Wing Hei Chan; Fernando J. Rossello; Tanvir Kaur Kahlon; Mandy Theocharous; Teni Kurian Arackal; Tracey Flores; Mégane Giraud; Elizabeth Richards; Eva Chan; Genevieve Kerr; Rebekah M. Engel; Mirsada Prasko; Jacqueline F. Donoghue; Shin-ichi Abe; Toby J. Phesse; Christian M. Nefzger; Paul J. McMurrick; Helen E. Abud
    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • LEFTY1 Is a Dual-SMAD Inhibitor that Promotes Mammary Progenitor Growth and Tumorigenesis
    Cell Stem Cell (IF 20.86) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Maider Zabala; Neethan A. Lobo; Jane Antony; Luuk S. Heitink; Gunsagar S. Gulati; Jessica Lam; Natesh Parashurama; Kassandra Sanchez; Maddalena Adorno; Shaheen S. Sikandar; Angera H. Kuo; Dalong Qian; Tomer Kalisky; Sopheak Sim; Linus Li; Frederick M. Dirbas; George Somlo; Aaron Newman; Michael F. Clarke
    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Prostate cancer reactivates developmental epigenomic programs during metastatic progression
    Nat. Genet. (IF 27.603) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Mark M. Pomerantz; Xintao Qiu; Yanyun Zhu; David Y. Takeda; Wenting Pan; Sylvan C. Baca; Alexander Gusev; Keegan D. Korthauer; Tesa M. Severson; Gavin Ha; Srinivas R. Viswanathan; Ji-Heui Seo; Holly M. Nguyen; Baohui Zhang; Bogdan Pasaniuc; Claudia Giambartolomei; Sarah A. Alaiwi; Connor A. Bell; Edward P. O’Connor; Matthew S. Chabot; David R. Stillman; Rosina Lis; Alba Font-Tello; Lewyn Li; Paloma

    下载期货 Epigenetic processes govern prostate cancer (PCa) biology, as evidenced by the dependency of PCa cells on the androgen receptor (AR), a prostate master transcription factor. We generated 268 epigenomic datasets spanning two state transitions—from normal prostate epithelium to localized PCa to metastases—in specimens derived from human tissue. We discovered that reprogrammed AR sites in metastatic PCa

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Imprecise DNMT1 activity coupled with neighbor-guided correction enables robust yet flexible epigenetic inheritance
    Nat. Genet. (IF 27.603) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Qiujun Wang; Guang Yu; Xuan Ming; Weikun Xia; Xiguang Xu; Yu Zhang; Wenhao Zhang; Yuanyuan Li; Chunyi Huang; Hehuang Xie; Bing Zhu; Wei Xie

    下载期货 The epigenome, including DNA methylation, is stably propagated during mitotic division. However, single-cell clonal expansion produces heterogeneous methylomes, thus raising the question of how the DNA methylome remains stable despite constant epigenetic drift. Here, we report that a clonal population of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)-only cells produces a heterogeneous methylome, which

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Regulated IFN signalling preserves the stemness of intestinal stem cells by restricting differentiation into secretory-cell lineages
    Nat. Cell Biol. (IF 20.042) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Taku Sato; Shun Ishikawa; Jumpei Asano; Hirona Yamamoto; Masayuki Fujii; Toshiro Sato; Kouhei Yamamoto; Keisuke Kitagaki; Takumi Akashi; Ryuichi Okamoto; Toshiaki Ohteki

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are located at the crypt base and fine-tune the balance of their self-renewal and differentiation1,2, but the physiological mechanism involved in regulating that balance remains unknown. Here we describe a transcriptional regulator that preserves the stemness of ISCs by restricting their differentiation into secretory-cell lineages. Interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2)

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • CRISPR C-to-G base editors for inducing targeted DNA transversions in human cells
    Nat. Biotechnol. (IF 36.558) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Ibrahim C. Kurt; Ronghao Zhou; Sowmya Iyer; Sara P. Garcia; Bret R. Miller; Lukas M. Langner; Julian Grünewald; J. Keith Joung

    CRISPR-guided DNA cytosine and adenine base editors are widely used for many applications1,2,3,4 but primarily create DNA base transitions (that is, pyrimidine-to-pyrimidine or purine-to-purine). Here we describe the engineering of two base editor architectures that can efficiently induce targeted C-to-G base transversions, with reduced levels of unwanted C-to-W (W = A or T) and indel mutations. One

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Cell type prioritization in single-cell data
    Nat. Biotechnol. (IF 36.558) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Michael A. Skinnider; Jordan W. Squair; Claudia Kathe; Mark A. Anderson; Matthieu Gautier; Kaya J. E. Matson; Marco Milano; Thomas H. Hutson; Quentin Barraud; Aaron A. Phillips; Leonard J. Foster; Gioele La Manno; Ariel J. Levine; Grégoire Courtine

    We present Augur, a method to prioritize the cell types most responsive to biological perturbations in single-cell data. Augur employs a machine-learning framework to quantify the separability of perturbed and unperturbed cells within a high-dimensional space. We validate our method on single-cell RNA sequencing, chromatin accessibility and imaging transcriptomics datasets, and show that Augur outperforms

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • New base editors change C to A in bacteria and C to G in mammalian cells
    Nat. Biotechnol. (IF 36.558) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Dongdong Zhao; Ju Li; Siwei Li; Xiuqing Xin; Muzi Hu; Marcus A. Price; Susan J. Rosser; Changhao Bi; Xueli Zhang

    Current base editors (BEs) catalyze only base transitions (C to T and A to G) and cannot produce base transversions. Here we present BEs that cause C-to-A transversions in Escherichia coli and C-to-G transversions in mammalian cells. These glycosylase base editors (GBEs) consist of a Cas9 nickase, a cytidine deaminase and a uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung). Ung excises the U base created by the deaminase

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • A unified catalog of 204,938 reference genomes from the human gut microbiome
    Nat. Biotechnol. (IF 36.558) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Alexandre Almeida; Stephen Nayfach; Miguel Boland; Francesco Strozzi; Martin Beracochea; Zhou Jason Shi; Katherine S. Pollard; Ekaterina Sakharova; Donovan H. Parks; Philip Hugenholtz; Nicola Segata; Nikos C. Kyrpides; Robert D. Finn

    Comprehensive, high-quality reference genomes are required for functional characterization and taxonomic assignment of the human gut microbiota. We present the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection, comprising 204,938 nonredundant genomes from 4,644 gut prokaryotes. These genomes encode >170 million protein sequences, which we collated in the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Protein

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Using robots to probe how people react to simple behaviours
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Josie Glausiusz

    Neuroscientist Agnieszka Wykowska investigates how the human brain reacts to embodied artificial intelligence.

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Arab world’s first Mars probe takes to the skies
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Elizabeth Gibney

    下载期货 Celebration is tinged with relief as US$200-million orbiter embarks on 7-month odyssey to the red planet.

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Let Arab space programmes create more space for Arab scientists and students
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Nidhal Guessoum

    下载期货 The United Arab Emirates’ Mars probe is a stunning and historic effort, but it needs to be transformational, too.

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Coherent many-body exciton in van der Waals antiferromagnet NiPS 3
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Soonmin Kang; Kangwon Kim; Beom Hyun Kim; Jonghyeon Kim; Kyung Ik Sim; Jae-Ung Lee; Sungmin Lee; Kisoo Park; Seokhwan Yun; Taehun Kim; Abhishek Nag; Andrew Walters; Mirian Garcia-Fernandez; Jiemin Li; Laurent Chapon; Ke-Jin Zhou; Young-Woo Son; Jae Hoon Kim; Hyeonsik Cheong; Je-Geun Park

    下载期货 An exciton is the bosonic quasiparticle of electron–hole pairs bound by the Coulomb interaction1. Bose–Einstein condensation of this exciton state has long been the subject of speculation in various model systems2,3, and examples have been found more recently in optical lattices and two-dimensional materials4,5,6,7,8,9. Unlike these conventional excitons formed from extended Bloch states4,5,6,7,8,9

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Four ways to build your network without attending a conference
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Edmond Sanganyado

    下载期货 AuthorAID, LinkedIn and WeChat can help to plug the connections gap when events get cancelled, says Edmond Sanganyado.

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • The explosion of new coronavirus tests that could help to end the pandemic
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Giorgia Guglielmi

    Researchers are scrambling to find other ways to diagnose the coronavirus and churn out millions of tests a week — a key step in returning to normality.

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • US universities are right to fight injustice
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17

    When the Trump administration threatened to deport international students taking only-online courses, there was only one response. No.

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • US government rescinds antagonistic international-student visa policy
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Chris Woolston

    下载期货 Plan to force students to take in-person classes or face deportation is dropped during a federal hearing.

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Assessing the impact of coordinated COVID-19 exit strategies across Europe
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    N. W. Ruktanonchai, J. R. Floyd, S. Lai, C. W. Ruktanonchai, A. Sadilek, P. Rente-Lourenco, X. Ben, A. Carioli, J. Gwinn, J. E. Steele, O. Prosper, A. Schneider, A. Oplinger, P. Eastham, A. J. Tatem

    下载期货 As rates of new COVID-19 cases decline across Europe due to non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing policies and lockdown measures, countries require guidance on how to ease restrictions while minimizing the risk of resurgent outbreaks. Here, we use mobility and case data to quantify how coordinated exit strategies could delay continental resurgence and limit community transmission

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Structural basis for translational shutdown and immune evasion by the Nsp1 protein of SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Matthias Thoms, Robert Buschauer, Michael Ameismeier, Lennart Koepke, Timo Denk, Maximilian Hirschenberger, Hanna Kratzat, Manuel Hayn, Timur Mackens-Kiani, Jingdong Cheng, Jan H. Straub, Christina M. Stürzel, Thomas Fröhlich, Otto Berninghausen, Thomas Becker, Frank Kirchhoff, Konstantin M. J. Sparrer, Roland Beckmann

    下载期货 SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic. A major virulence factor of SARS-CoVs is the nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) which suppresses host gene expression by ribosome association. Here, we show that Nsp1 from SARS-CoV-2 binds to the 40S ribosomal subunit, resulting in shutdown of mRNA translation both in vitro and in cells. Structural analysis by cryo-electron microscopy

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Reconfigurable microbots folded from simple colloidal chains [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Tao Yang, Brennan Sprinkle, Yang Guo, Jun Qian, Daoben Hua, Aleksandar Donev, David W. M. Marr, Ning Wu

    下载期货 To overcome the reversible nature of low-Reynolds-number flow, a variety of biomimetic microrobotic propulsion schemes and devices capable of rapid transport have been developed. However, these approaches have been typically optimized for a specific function or environment and do not have the flexibility that many real organisms exhibit to thrive in complex microenvironments. Here, inspired by adaptable

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Bacterial immunotherapy for cancer induces CD4-dependent tumor-specific immunity through tumor-intrinsic interferon-{gamma} signaling [Immunology and Inflammation]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Anthony C. Antonelli, Anna Binyamin, Tobias M. Hohl, Michael S. Glickman, Gil Redelman-Sidi

    Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy for bladder cancer is the only bacterial cancer therapy approved for clinical use. Although presumed to induce T cell-mediated immunity, whether tumor elimination depends on bacteria-specific or tumor-specific immunity is unknown. Herein we show that BCG-induced bladder tumor elimination requires CD4 and CD8 T cells, although augmentation or inhibition of

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Morphological profiling of tubercle bacilli identifies drug pathways of action [Microbiology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Trever C. Smith, Krista M. Pullen, Michaela C. Olson, Morgan E. McNellis, Ian Richardson, Sophia Hu, Jonah Larkins-Ford, Xin Wang, Joel S. Freundlich, D. Michael Ando, Bree B. Aldridge

    Morphological profiling is a method to classify target pathways of antibacterials based on how bacteria respond to treatment through changes to cellular shape and spatial organization. Here we utilized the cell-to-cell variation in morphological features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli to develop a rapid profiling platform called Morphological Evaluation and Understanding of Stress (MorphEUS)

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Two-step reaction mechanism reveals new antioxidant capability of cysteine disulfides against hydroxyl radical attack [Chemistry]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Sarju Adhikari, Ramon Crehuet, Josep M. Anglada, Joseph S. Francisco, Yu Xia

    Cysteine disulfides, which constitute an important component in biological redox buffer systems, are highly reactive toward the hydroxyl radical (•OH). The mechanistic details of this reaction, however, remain unclear, largely due to the difficulty in characterizing unstable reaction products. Herein, we have developed a combined approach involving mass spectrometry (MS) and theoretical calculations

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Evolutionary stalling and a limit on the power of natural selection to improve a cellular module [Evolution]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Sandeep Venkataram, Ross Monasky, Shohreh H. Sikaroodi, Sergey Kryazhimskiy, Betul Kacar

    Cells consist of molecular modules which perform vital biological functions. Cellular modules are key units of adaptive evolution because organismal fitness depends on their performance. Theory shows that in rapidly evolving populations, such as those of many microbes, adaptation is driven primarily by common beneficial mutations with large effects, while other mutations behave as if they are effectively

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Maladaptive response of arterial myocytes to chronic exposure to Ca2+ channel blockers [Commentaries]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Samantha C. O’Dwyer, Manuel F. Navedo, L. F. Santana

    Hypertension is a debilitating cardiovascular disease characterized by the narrowing of arteries and arterioles which increases resistance to blood flow. This decrease in intraluminal diameter of arteries/arterioles is due to multiple factors, including arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as increased myogenic tone. Up-regulation of L-type Ca2+ channel activity is a major contributor

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Crystallographic evidence of Watson-Crick connectivity in the base pair of anionic adenine with thymine [Chemistry]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Manish Kumar Mishra, Steven P. Kelley, Volodymyr Smetana, David A. Dixon, Ashley S. McNeill, Anja-Verena Mudring, Robin D. Rogers

    Utilizing an ionic liquid strategy, we report crystal structures of salts of free anionic nucleobases and base pairs previously studied only computationally and in the gas phase. Reaction of tetrabutylammonium ([N4444]+) or tetrabutylphosphonium ([P4444]+) hydroxide with adenine (HAd) and thymine (HThy) led to hydrated salts of deprotonated adenine, [N4444][Ad]·2H2O, and thymine, [P4444][Thy]·2H2O

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Cryo-EM analysis of a membrane protein embedded in the liposome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Xia Yao, Xiao Fan, Nieng Yan

    Membrane proteins (MPs) used to be the most difficult targets for structural biology when X-ray crystallography was the mainstream approach. With the resolution revolution of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM), rapid progress has been made for structural elucidation of isolated MPs. The next challenge is to preserve the electrochemical gradients and membrane curvature for a comprehensive

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • V1 neurons encode the perceptual compensation of false torsion arising from Listing’s law [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Mohammad Farhan Khazali, Hamidreza Ramezanpour, Peter Thier

    下载期货 We try to deploy the retinal fovea to optimally scrutinize an object of interest by directing our eyes to it. The horizontal and vertical components of eye positions acquired by goal-directed saccades are determined by the object’s location. However, the eccentric eye positions also involve a torsional component, which according to Donder’s law is fully determined by the two-dimensional (2D) eye position

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Cavity molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water under vibrational ultrastrong coupling [Physics]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Tao E. Li, Joseph E. Subotnik, Abraham Nitzan

    下载期货 We simulate vibrational strong coupling (VSC) and vibrational ultrastrong coupling (V-USC) for liquid water with classical molecular dynamics simulations. When the cavity modes are resonantly coupled to the O−H stretch mode of liquid water, the infrared spectrum shows asymmetric Rabi splitting. The lower polariton (LP) may be suppressed or enhanced relative to the upper polariton (UP) depending on

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Plato’s cube and the natural geometry of fragmentation [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Gábor Domokos, Douglas J. Jerolmack, Ferenc Kun, János Török

    Plato envisioned Earth’s building blocks as cubes, a shape rarely found in nature. The solar system is littered, however, with distorted polyhedra—shards of rock and ice produced by ubiquitous fragmentation. We apply the theory of convex mosaics to show that the average geometry of natural two-dimensional (2D) fragments, from mud cracks to Earth’s tectonic plates, has two attractors: “Platonic” quadrangles

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Aerosols enhance cloud lifetime and brightness along the stratus-to-cumulus transition [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Matthew W. Christensen, William K. Jones, Philip Stier

    Anthropogenic aerosols are hypothesized to enhance planetary albedo and offset some of the warming due to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere. Aerosols can enhance the coverage, reflectance, and lifetime of warm low-level clouds. However, the relationship between cloud lifetime and aerosol concentration has been challenging to measure from polar orbiting satellites. We estimate two

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • The impact of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 spike on viral infectivity and antigenicity
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Qianqian Li; Jiajing Wu; Jianhui Nie; Li Zhang; Huan Hao; Shuo Liu; Chenyan Zhao; Qi Zhang; Huan Liu; Lingling Nie; Haiyang Qin; Meng Wang; Qiong Lu; Xiaoyu Li; Qiyu Sun; Junkai Liu; Linqi Zhang; Xuguang Li; Youchun Wang

    The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been undergoing mutations and is highly glycosylated. It is critically important to investigate the biological significance of these mutations. Here we investigated 80 variants and 26 glycosylation site modifications for the infectivity and reactivity to a panel of neutralizing antibodies and sera from convalescent patients. D614G, along with several variants containing

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Author Correction: Scalable and robust SARS-CoV-2 testing in an academic center
    Nat. Biotechnol. (IF 36.558) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Jim Aitken; Karen Ambrose; Sam Barrell; Rupert Beale; Ganka Bineva-Todd; Dhruva Biswas; Richard Byrne; Simon Caidan; Peter Cherepanov; Laura Churchward; Graham Clark; Margaret Crawford; Laura Cubitt; Vicky Dearing; Christopher Earl; Amelia Edwards; Chris Ekin; Efthymios Fidanis; Alessandra Gaiba; Steve Gamblin; Sonia Gandhi; Jacki Goldman; Robert Goldstone; Paul R. Grant; Maria Greco; Judith Heaney;

    下载期货 An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Author Correction: Observation of Bose–Einstein condensates in an Earth-orbiting research lab
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    David C. Aveline; Jason R. Williams; Ethan R. Elliott; Chelsea Dutenhoffer; James R. Kellogg; James M. Kohel; Norman E. Lay; Kamal Oudrhiri; Robert F. Shotwell; Nan Yu; Robert J. Thompson

    下载期货 An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Author Correction: The Apostasia genome and the evolution of orchids
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Guo-Qiang Zhang; Ke-Wei Liu; Zhen Li; Rolf Lohaus; Yu-Yun Hsiao; Shan-Ce Niu; Jie-Yu Wang; Yao-Cheng Lin; Qing Xu; Li-Jun Chen; Kouki Yoshida; Sumire Fujiwara; Zhi-Wen Wang; Yong-Qiang Zhang; Nobutaka Mitsuda; Meina Wang; Guo-Hui Liu; Lorenzo Pecoraro; Hui-Xia Huang; Xin-Ju Xiao; Min Lin; Xin-Yi Wu; Wan-Lin Wu; You-Yi Chen; Song-Bin Chang; Shingo Sakamoto; Masaru Ohme-Takagi; Masafumi Yagi; Si-Jin

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Extreme Arctic waves set to hit new heights
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17

    Waves crashing into Arctic coastlines could grow by as much as three metres if global warming continues unabated.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Publisher Correction: Whole-genome sequencing of a sporadic primary immunodeficiency cohort
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    James E. D. Thaventhiran; Hana Lango Allen; Oliver S. Burren; William Rae; Daniel Greene; Emily Staples; Zinan Zhang; James H. R. Farmery; Ilenia Simeoni; Elizabeth Rivers; Jesmeen Maimaris; Christopher J. Penkett; Jonathan Stephens; Sri V. V. Deevi; Alba Sanchis-Juan; Nicholas S. Gleadall; Moira J. Thomas; Ravishankar B. Sargur; Pavels Gordins; Helen E. Baxendale; Matthew Brown; Paul Tuijnenburg;

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Daily briefing: How to take the figures in your paper to the next level
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Flora Graham

    Journal editors share what makes a great figure. Plus, hackers have been targeting COVID-19 vaccine researchers and how Plan S will open the door to any journal.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Huge virus’s mini-enzymes boost CRISPR’s powers
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-16

    The viruses called Biggiephages harbour undersized enzymes that can target a broad range of DNA sequences.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Daily briefing: Arctic heat wave is ‘unequivocal’ evidence of climate change
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Flora Graham

    下载期货 Devastating, record-breaking Arctic heat was made 600 times more likely by human-induced climate change. Plus, the closest photo of the Sun ever taken and what it’s like to lead the development of a front-running COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Population genetics of the coral Acropora millepora: Toward genomic prediction of bleaching
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Zachary L. Fuller, Veronique J. L. Mocellin, Luke A. Morris, Neal Cantin, Jihanne Shepherd, Luke Sarre, Julie Peng, Yi Liao, Joseph Pickrell, Peter Andolfatto, Mikhail Matz, Line K. Bay, Molly Przeworski

    Although reef-building corals are declining worldwide, responses to bleaching vary within and across species and are partly heritable. Toward predicting bleaching response from genomic data, we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly for the coral Acropora millepora. We obtained whole-genome sequences for 237 phenotyped samples collected at 12 reefs along the Great Barrier Reef, among which we

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Optical frequency combs: Coherently uniting the electromagnetic spectrum
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Scott A. Diddams, Kerry Vahala, Thomas Udem

    下载期货 Optical frequency combs were introduced around 20 years ago as a laser technology that could synthesize and count the ultrafast rate of the oscillating cycles of light. Functioning in a manner analogous to a clockwork of gears, the frequency comb phase-coherently upconverts a radio frequency signal by a factor of ≈105 to provide a vast array of evenly spaced optical frequencies, which is the comb for

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Tumor-initiating cells establish an IL-33–TGF-β niche signaling loop to promote cancer progression
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Sachiko Taniguchi, Ajit Elhance, Avery Van Duzer, Sushil Kumar, Justin J. Leitenberger, Naoki Oshimori

    下载期货 Targeting the cross-talk between tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and the niche microenvironment is an attractive avenue for cancer therapy. We show here, using a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma, that TICs play a crucial role in creating a niche microenvironment that is required for tumor progression and drug resistance. Antioxidant activity in TICs, mediated by the transcription factor NRF2, facilitates

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Technology Feature | The road to reducing traffic accidents in China
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Sarah O'Meara

    Biomarkers for neurological diseases used to be few and far between, but better technology is making it easier for researchers to track brain health by measuring molecules. This means less invasive testing, earlier diagnosis, faster drug development, and—hopefully—more effective treatments. Read the Feature (Full-Text HTML) Read the Feature (PDF)

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • CRISPR-CasΦ from huge phages is a hypercompact genome editor
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Patrick Pausch, Basem Al-Shayeb, Ezra Bisom-Rapp, Connor A. Tsuchida, Zheng Li, Brady F. Cress, Gavin J. Knott, Steven E. Jacobsen, Jillian F. Banfield, Jennifer A. Doudna

    下载期货 CRISPR-Cas systems are found widely in prokaryotes, where they provide adaptive immunity against virus infection and plasmid transformation. We describe a minimal functional CRISPR-Cas system, comprising a single ~70-kilodalton protein, CasΦ, and a CRISPR array, encoded exclusively in the genomes of huge bacteriophages. CasΦ uses a single active site for both CRISPR RNA (crRNA) processing and crRNA-guided

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Site-specific glycan analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 spike.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Yasunori Watanabe,Joel D Allen,Daniel Wrapp,Jason S McLellan,Max Crispin

    下载期货 The emergence of the betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents a considerable threat to global human health. Vaccine development is focused on the principal target of the humoral immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates cell entry and membrane fusion. The SARS-CoV-2 S gene

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • A programmable fate decision landscape underlies single-cell aging in yeast
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Yang Li, Yanfei Jiang, Julie Paxman, Richard O’Laughlin, Stephen Klepin, Yuelian Zhu, Lorraine Pillus, Lev S. Tsimring, Jeff Hasty, Nan Hao

    Chromatin instability and mitochondrial decline are conserved processes that contribute to cellular aging. Although both processes have been explored individually in the context of their distinct signaling pathways, the mechanism that determines which process dominates during aging of individual cells is unknown. We show that interactions between the chromatin silencing and mitochondrial pathways lead

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Autoreactivity in naïve human fetal B cells is associated with commensal bacteria recognition
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Jeff W. Chen, Tyler A. Rice, Jason M. Bannock, Agata A. Bielecka, Juliet D. Strauss, Jason R. Catanzaro, Haowei Wang, Laurence C. Menard, Jennifer H. Anolik, Noah W. Palm, Eric Meffre

    Restricted V(D)J recombination during fetal development was postulated to limit antibody repertoire breadth and prevent autoimmunity. However, newborn serum contains abundant autoantibodies, suggesting that B cell tolerance during gestation is not yet fully established. To investigate this apparent paradox, we evaluated the reactivities of more than 450 antibodies cloned from single B cells from human

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Susceptible supply limits the role of climate in the early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Rachel E Baker,Wenchang Yang,Gabriel A Vecchi,C Jessica E Metcalf,Bryan T Grenfell

    Preliminary evidence suggests that climate may modulate the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yet it remains unclear whether seasonal and geographic variations in climate can substantially alter the pandemic trajectory, given that high susceptibility is a core driver. Here, we use a climate-dependent epidemic model to simulate the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic by probing

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • N-Aryl–linked spirocyclic polymers for membrane separations of complex hydrocarbon mixtures
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Kirstie A. Thompson, Ronita Mathias, Daeok Kim, Jihoon Kim, Neel Rangnekar, J. R. Johnson, Scott J. Hoy, Irene Bechis, Andrew Tarzia, Kim E. Jelfs, Benjamin A. McCool, Andrew G. Livingston, Ryan P. Lively, M. G. Finn

    The fractionation of crude-oil mixtures through distillation is a large-scale, energy-intensive process. Membrane materials can avoid phase changes in such mixtures and thereby reduce the energy intensity of these thermal separations. With this application in mind, we created spirocyclic polymers with N-aryl bonds that demonstrated noninterconnected microporosity in the absence of ladder linkages.

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Molecular square dancing in CO-CO collisions
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Zhong-Fa Sun, Marc C. van Hemert, Jérôme Loreau, Ad van der Avoird, Arthur G. Suits, David H. Parker

    下载期货 Knowledge of rotational energy transfer (RET) involving carbon monoxide (CO) molecules is crucial for the interpretation of astrophysical data. As of now, our nearly perfect understanding of atom-molecule scattering shows that RET usually occurs by only a simple “bump” between partners. To advance molecular dynamics to the next step in complexity, we studied molecule-molecule scattering in great detail

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Boron-enabled geometric isomerization of alkenes via selective energy-transfer catalysis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    John J. Molloy, Michael Schäfer, Max Wienhold, Tobias Morack, Constantin G. Daniliuc, Ryan Gilmour

    Isomerization-based strategies to enable the stereodivergent construction of complex polyenes from geometrically defined alkene linchpins remain conspicuously underdeveloped. Mitigating the thermodynamic constraints inherent to isomerization is further frustrated by the considerations of atom efficiency in idealized low–molecular weight precursors. In this work, we report a general ambiphilic C3 scaffold

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Introductions and early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City area.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche,Matthew M Hernandez,Mitchell J Sullivan,Brianne Ciferri,Hala Alshammary,Ajay Obla,Shelcie Fabre,Giulio Kleiner,Jose Polanco,Zenab Khan,Bremy Alburquerque,Adriana van de Guchte,Jayeeta Dutta,Nancy Francoeur,Betsaida Salom Melo,Irina Oussenko,Gintaras Deikus,Juan Soto,Shwetha Hara Sridhar,Ying-Chih Wang,Kathryn Twyman,Andrew Kasarskis,Deena R Altman,Melissa Smith,Robert Sebra,Judith

    New York City (NYC) has emerged as one of the epicenters of the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. To identify the early transmission events underlying the rapid spread of the virus in the NYC metropolitan area, we sequenced the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients seeking care at the Mount Sinai Health System. Phylogenetic analysis

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Giant piezoelectricity in oxide thin films with nanopillar structure
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Huajun Liu, Haijun Wu, Khuong Phuong Ong, Tiannan Yang, Ping Yang, Pranab Kumar Das, Xiao Chi, Yang Zhang, Caozheng Diao, Wai Kong Alaric Wong, Eh Piew Chew, Yi Fan Chen, Chee Kiang Ivan Tan, Andrivo Rusydi, Mark B. H. Breese, David J. Singh, Long-Qing Chen, Stephen J. Pennycook, Kui Yao

    High-performance piezoelectric materials are critical components for electromechanical sensors and actuators. For more than 60 years, the main strategy for obtaining large piezoelectric response has been to construct multiphase boundaries, where nanoscale domains with local structural and polar heterogeneity are formed, by tuning complex chemical compositions. We used a different strategy to emulate

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Second critical point in two realistic models of water
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Pablo G. Debenedetti, Francesco Sciortino, Gül H. Zerze

    The hypothesis that water has a second critical point at deeply supercooled conditions was formulated to provide a thermodynamically consistent interpretation of numerous experimental observations. A large body of work has been devoted to verifying or falsifying this hypothesis, but no unambiguous experimental proof has yet been found. Here, we use histogram reweighting and large-system scattering

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Ancient DNA indicates human population shifts and admixture in northern and southern China.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Melinda A Yang,Xuechun Fan,Bo Sun,Chungyu Chen,Jianfeng Lang,Ying-Chin Ko,Cheng-Hwa Tsang,Hunglin Chiu,Tianyi Wang,Qingchuan Bao,Xiaohong Wu,Mateja Hajdinjak,Albert Min-Shan Ko,Manyu Ding,Peng Cao,Ruowei Yang,Feng Liu,Birgit Nickel,Qingyan Dai,Xiaotian Feng,Lizhao Zhang,Chengkai Sun,Chao Ning,Wen Zeng,Yongsheng Zhao,Ming Zhang,Xing Gao,Yinqiu Cui,David Reich,Mark Stoneking,Qiaomei Fu

    Human genetic history in East Asia is poorly understood. To clarify population relationships, we obtained genome-wide data from 26 ancient individuals from northern and southern East Asia spanning 9500 to 300 years ago. Genetic differentiation in this region was higher in the past than the present, which reflects a major episode of admixture involving northern East Asian ancestry spreading across southern

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Cancer cells deploy lipocalin-2 to collect limiting iron in leptomeningeal metastasis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Yudan Chi, Jan Remsik, Vaidotas Kiseliovas, Camille Derderian, Ugur Sener, Majdi Alghader, Fadi Saadeh, Katie Nikishina, Tejus Bale, Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, Tiffany Thomas, Dana Pe’er, Linas Mazutis, Adrienne Boire

    下载期货 The tumor microenvironment plays a critical regulatory role in cancer progression, especially in central nervous system metastases. Cancer cells within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)–filled leptomeninges face substantial microenvironmental challenges, including inflammation and sparse micronutrients. To investigate the mechanism by which cancer cells in these leptomeningeal metastases (LM) overcome

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • A brain-wide atlas of synapses across the mouse lifespan.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Mélissa Cizeron,Zhen Qiu,Babis Koniaris,Ragini Gokhale,Noboru H Komiyama,Erik Fransén,Seth G N Grant

    Synapses connect neurons together to form the circuits of the brain, and their molecular composition controls innate and learned behavior. We analyzed the molecular and morphological diversity of 5 billion excitatory synapses at single-synapse resolution across the mouse brain from birth to old age. A continuum of changes alters synapse composition in all brain regions across the life span. Expansion

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Color vision
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Michael Rossi

    The concept of "color" is tricky—but then so is "nature" and so is "history." It follows that to attempt a "natural history of color" is to wade into a combinatorial explosion of assumptions, definitions, methodologies, stories, and theories. Written by Rob DeSalle, a molecular biologist, and Hans Bachor, an optical physicist, A Natural History of Color accepts this challenge, endeavoring, as the authors

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Overseeing innovation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Emily K. Gibson

    下载期货 Since its publication in 1945, Vannevar Bush's Science—The Endless Frontier has elicited considerable examination and criticism. More often than not, contemporary discussions emphasize the report's shortcomings rather than its successes, using it as a foil for remarking on everything from the complexity of the innovation process to the immense growth of the American science and technology (S&T) enterprise

    更新日期:2020-07-17
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